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Release 4.12 include/net/iw_handler.h

Directory: include/net
 * This file define the new driver API for Wireless Extensions
 * Version :    8       16.3.07
 * Authors :    Jean Tourrilhes - HPL - <>
 * Copyright (c) 2001-2007 Jean Tourrilhes, All Rights Reserved.

#ifndef _IW_HANDLER_H

#define _IW_HANDLER_H

/************************** DOCUMENTATION **************************/
 * Initial driver API (1996 -> onward) :
 * -----------------------------------
 * The initial API just sends the IOCTL request received from user space
 * to the driver (via the driver ioctl handler). The driver has to
 * handle all the rest...
 * The initial API also defines a specific handler in struct net_device
 * to handle wireless statistics.
 * The initial APIs served us well and has proven a reasonably good design.
 * However, there is a few shortcommings :
 *      o No events, everything is a request to the driver.
 *      o Large ioctl function in driver with gigantic switch statement
 *        (i.e. spaghetti code).
 *      o Driver has to mess up with copy_to/from_user, and in many cases
 *        does it unproperly. Common mistakes are :
 *              * buffer overflows (no checks or off by one checks)
 *              * call copy_to/from_user with irq disabled
 *      o The user space interface is tied to ioctl because of the use
 *        copy_to/from_user.
 * New driver API (2002 -> onward) :
 * -------------------------------
 * The new driver API is just a bunch of standard functions (handlers),
 * each handling a specific Wireless Extension. The driver just export
 * the list of handler it supports, and those will be called apropriately.
 * I tried to keep the main advantage of the previous API (simplicity,
 * efficiency and light weight), and also I provide a good dose of backward
 * compatibility (most structures are the same, driver can use both API
 * simultaneously, ...).
 * Hopefully, I've also addressed the shortcomming of the initial API.
 * The advantage of the new API are :
 *      o Handling of Extensions in driver broken in small contained functions
 *      o Tighter checks of ioctl before calling the driver
 *      o Flexible commit strategy (at least, the start of it)
 *      o Backward compatibility (can be mixed with old API)
 *      o Driver doesn't have to worry about memory and user-space issues
 * The last point is important for the following reasons :
 *      o You are now able to call the new driver API from any API you
 *              want (including from within other parts of the kernel).
 *      o Common mistakes are avoided (buffer overflow, user space copy
 *              with irq disabled and so on).
 * The Drawback of the new API are :
 *      o bloat (especially kernel)
 *      o need to migrate existing drivers to new API
 * My initial testing shows that the new API adds around 3kB to the kernel
 * and save between 0 and 5kB from a typical driver.
 * Also, as all structures and data types are unchanged, the migration is
 * quite straightforward (but tedious).
 * ---
 * The new driver API is defined below in this file. User space should
 * not be aware of what's happening down there...
 * A new kernel wrapper is in charge of validating the IOCTLs and calling
 * the appropriate driver handler. This is implemented in :
 *      # net/core/wireless.c
 * The driver export the list of handlers in :
 *      # include/linux/netdevice.h (one place)
 * The new driver API is available for WIRELESS_EXT >= 13.
 * Good luck with migration to the new API ;-)

/* ---------------------- THE IMPLEMENTATION ---------------------- */
 * Some of the choice I've made are pretty controversials. Defining an
 * API is very much weighting compromises. This goes into some of the
 * details and the thinking behind the implementation.
 * Implementation goals :
 * --------------------
 * The implementation goals were as follow :
 *      o Obvious : you should not need a PhD to understand what's happening,
 *              the benefit is easier maintenance.
 *      o Flexible : it should accommodate a wide variety of driver
 *              implementations and be as flexible as the old API.
 *      o Lean : it should be efficient memory wise to minimise the impact
 *              on kernel footprint.
 *      o Transparent to user space : the large number of user space
 *              applications that use Wireless Extensions should not need
 *              any modifications.
 * Array of functions versus Struct of functions
 * ---------------------------------------------
 * 1) Having an array of functions allow the kernel code to access the
 * handler in a single lookup, which is much more efficient (think hash
 * table here).
 * 2) The only drawback is that driver writer may put their handler in
 * the wrong slot. This is trivial to test (I set the frequency, the
 * bitrate changes). Once the handler is in the proper slot, it will be
 * there forever, because the array is only extended at the end.
 * 3) Backward/forward compatibility : adding new handler just require
 * extending the array, so you can put newer driver in older kernel
 * without having to patch the kernel code (and vice versa).
 * All handler are of the same generic type
 * ----------------------------------------
 * That's a feature !!!
 * 1) Having a generic handler allow to have generic code, which is more
 * efficient. If each of the handler was individually typed I would need
 * to add a big switch in the kernel (== more bloat). This solution is
 * more scalable, adding new Wireless Extensions doesn't add new code.
 * 2) You can use the same handler in different slots of the array. For
 * hardware, it may be more efficient or logical to handle multiple
 * Wireless Extensions with a single function, and the API allow you to
 * do that. (An example would be a single record on the card to control
 * both bitrate and frequency, the handler would read the old record,
 * modify it according to info->cmd and rewrite it).
 * Functions prototype uses union iwreq_data
 * -----------------------------------------
 * Some would have preferred functions defined this way :
 *      static int mydriver_ioctl_setrate(struct net_device *dev, 
 *                                        long rate, int auto)
 * 1) The kernel code doesn't "validate" the content of iwreq_data, and
 * can't do it (different hardware may have different notion of what a
 * valid frequency is), so we don't pretend that we do it.
 * 2) The above form is not extendable. If I want to add a flag (for
 * example to distinguish setting max rate and basic rate), I would
 * break the prototype. Using iwreq_data is more flexible.
 * 3) Also, the above form is not generic (see above).
 * 4) I don't expect driver developper using the wrong field of the
 * union (Doh !), so static typechecking doesn't add much value.
 * 5) Lastly, you can skip the union by doing :
 *      static int mydriver_ioctl_setrate(struct net_device *dev,
 *                                        struct iw_request_info *info,
 *                                        struct iw_param *rrq,
 *                                        char *extra)
 * And then adding the handler in the array like this :
 *        (iw_handler) mydriver_ioctl_setrate,             // SIOCSIWRATE
 * Using functions and not a registry
 * ----------------------------------
 * Another implementation option would have been for every instance to
 * define a registry (a struct containing all the Wireless Extensions)
 * and only have a function to commit the registry to the hardware.
 * 1) This approach can be emulated by the current code, but not
 * vice versa.
 * 2) Some drivers don't keep any configuration in the driver, for them
 * adding such a registry would be a significant bloat.
 * 3) The code to translate from Wireless Extension to native format is
 * needed anyway, so it would not reduce significantely the amount of code.
 * 4) The current approach only selectively translate Wireless Extensions
 * to native format and only selectively set, whereas the registry approach
 * would require to translate all WE and set all parameters for any single
 * change.
 * 5) For many Wireless Extensions, the GET operation return the current
 * dynamic value, not the value that was set.
 * This header is <net/iw_handler.h>
 * ---------------------------------
 * 1) This header is kernel space only and should not be exported to
 * user space. Headers in "include/linux/" are exported, headers in
 * "include/net/" are not.
 * Mixed 32/64 bit issues
 * ----------------------
 * The Wireless Extensions are designed to be 64 bit clean, by using only
 * datatypes with explicit storage size.
 * There are some issues related to kernel and user space using different
 * memory model, and in particular 64bit kernel with 32bit user space.
 * The problem is related to struct iw_point, that contains a pointer
 * that *may* need to be translated.
 * This is quite messy. The new API doesn't solve this problem (it can't),
 * but is a step in the right direction :
 * 1) Meta data about each ioctl is easily available, so we know what type
 * of translation is needed.
 * 2) The move of data between kernel and user space is only done in a single
 * place in the kernel, so adding specific hooks in there is possible.
 * 3) In the long term, it allows to move away from using ioctl as the
 * user space API.
 * So many comments and so few code
 * --------------------------------
 * That's a feature. Comments won't bloat the resulting kernel binary.

/***************************** INCLUDES *****************************/

#include <linux/wireless.h>		/* IOCTL user space API */
#include <linux/if_ether.h>

/***************************** VERSION *****************************/
 * This constant is used to know which version of the driver API is
 * available. Hopefully, this will be pretty stable and no changes
 * will be needed...
 * I just plan to increment with each new version.


 * Changes :
 * V2 to V3
 * --------
 *      - Move event definition in <linux/wireless.h>
 *      - Add Wireless Event support :
 *              o wireless_send_event() prototype
 *              o iwe_stream_add_event/point() inline functions
 * V3 to V4
 * --------
 *      - Reshuffle IW_HEADER_TYPE_XXX to map IW_PRIV_TYPE_XXX changes
 * V4 to V5
 * --------
 *      - Add new spy support : struct iw_spy_data & prototypes
 * V5 to V6
 * --------
 *      - Change the way we get to spy_data method for added safety
 *      - Remove spy #ifdef, they are always on -> cleaner code
 *      - Add IW_DESCR_FLAG_NOMAX flag for very large requests
 *      - Start migrating get_wireless_stats to struct iw_handler_def
 * V6 to V7
 * --------
 *      - Add struct ieee80211_device pointer in struct iw_public_data
 *      - Remove (struct iw_point *)->pointer from events and streams
 *      - Remove spy_offset from struct iw_handler_def
 *      - Add "check" version of event macros for ieee802.11 stack
 * V7 to V8
 * ----------
 *      - Prevent leaking of kernel space in stream on 64 bits.

/**************************** CONSTANTS ****************************/

/* Enhanced spy support available */



/* Special error message for the driver to indicate that we
 * should do a commit after return from the iw_handler */


/* Flags available in struct iw_request_info */

#define IW_REQUEST_FLAG_COMPAT	0x0001	
/* Compat ioctl call */

/* Type of headers we know about (basically union iwreq_data) */

/* Not available */

/* char [IFNAMSIZ] */

/* __u32 */

/* struct iw_freq */

/* struct sockaddr */

/* struct iw_point */

/* struct iw_param */

/* struct iw_quality */

/* Handling flags */
/* Most are not implemented. I just use them as a reminder of some
 * cool features we might need one day ;-) */

#define IW_DESCR_FLAG_NONE	0x0000	
/* Obvious */
/* Wrapper level flags */

#define IW_DESCR_FLAG_DUMP	0x0001	
/* Not part of the dump command */

#define IW_DESCR_FLAG_EVENT	0x0002	
/* Generate an event on SET */

#define IW_DESCR_FLAG_RESTRICT	0x0004	
/* GET : request is ROOT only */
				/* SET : Omit payload from generated iwevent */

#define IW_DESCR_FLAG_NOMAX	0x0008	
/* GET : no limit on request size */
/* Driver level flags */

#define IW_DESCR_FLAG_WAIT	0x0100	
/* Wait for driver event */

/****************************** TYPES ******************************/

/* ----------------------- WIRELESS HANDLER ----------------------- */
 * A wireless handler is just a standard function, that looks like the
 * ioctl handler.
 * We also define there how a handler list look like... As the Wireless
 * Extension space is quite dense, we use a simple array, which is faster
 * (that's the perfect hash table ;-).

 * Meta data about the request passed to the iw_handler.
 * Most handlers can safely ignore what's in there.
 * The 'cmd' field might come handy if you want to use the same handler
 * for multiple command...
 * This struct is also my long term insurance. I can add new fields here
 * without breaking the prototype of iw_handler...

struct iw_request_info {
__u16		cmd;		/* Wireless Extension command */
__u16		flags;		/* More to come ;-) */

struct net_device;

 * This is how a function handling a Wireless Extension should look
 * like (both get and set, standard and private).

typedef int (*iw_handler)(struct net_device *dev, struct iw_request_info *info,
			  union iwreq_data *wrqu, char *extra);

 * This define all the handler that the driver export.
 * As you need only one per driver type, please use a static const
 * shared by all driver instances... Same for the members...
 * This will be linked from net_device in <linux/netdevice.h>

struct iw_handler_def {

	/* Array of handlers for standard ioctls
         * We will call dev->wireless_handlers->standard[ioctl - SIOCIWFIRST]
const iw_handler *	standard;
	/* Number of handlers defined (more precisely, index of the
         * last defined handler + 1) */
__u16			num_standard;

__u16			num_private;
	/* Number of private arg description */
__u16			num_private_args;
	/* Array of handlers for private ioctls
         * Will call dev->wireless_handlers->private[ioctl - SIOCIWFIRSTPRIV]
const iw_handler *	private;

	/* Arguments of private handler. This one is just a list, so you
         * can put it in any order you want and should not leave holes...
         * We will automatically export that to user space... */
const struct iw_priv_args *	private_args;

	/* New location of get_wireless_stats, to de-bloat struct net_device.
         * The old pointer in struct net_device will be gradually phased
         * out, and drivers are encouraged to use this one... */
struct iw_statistics*	(*get_wireless_stats)(struct net_device *dev);

/* ---------------------- IOCTL DESCRIPTION ---------------------- */
 * One of the main goal of the new interface is to deal entirely with
 * user space/kernel space memory move.
 * For that, we need to know :
 *      o if iwreq is a pointer or contain the full data
 *      o what is the size of the data to copy
 * For private IOCTLs, we use the same rules as used by iwpriv and
 * defined in struct iw_priv_args.
 * For standard IOCTLs, things are quite different and we need to
 * use the stuctures below. Actually, this struct is also more
 * efficient, but that's another story...

 * Describe how a standard IOCTL looks like.

struct iw_ioctl_description {
__u8	header_type;		/* NULL, iw_point or other */
__u8	token_type;		/* Future */
__u16	token_size;		/* Granularity of payload */
__u16	min_tokens;		/* Min acceptable token number */
__u16	max_tokens;		/* Max acceptable token number */
__u32	flags;			/* Special handling of the request */

/* Need to think of short header translation table. Later. */

/* --------------------- ENHANCED SPY SUPPORT --------------------- */
 * In the old days, the driver was handling spy support all by itself.
 * Now, the driver can delegate this task to Wireless Extensions.
 * It needs to include this struct in its private part and use the
 * standard spy iw_handler.

 * Instance specific spy data, i.e. addresses spied and quality for them.

struct iw_spy_data {
	/* --- Standard spy support --- */
int			spy_number;
u_char			spy_address[IW_MAX_SPY][ETH_ALEN];
struct iw_quality	spy_stat[IW_MAX_SPY];
	/* --- Enhanced spy support (event) */
struct iw_quality	spy_thr_low;	/* Low threshold */
struct iw_quality	spy_thr_high;	/* High threshold */
u_char			spy_thr_under[IW_MAX_SPY];

/* --------------------- DEVICE WIRELESS DATA --------------------- */
 * This is all the wireless data specific to a device instance that
 * is managed by the core of Wireless Extensions or the 802.11 layer.
 * We only keep pointer to those structures, so that a driver is free
 * to share them between instances.
 * This structure should be initialised before registering the device.
 * Access to this data follow the same rules as any other struct net_device
 * data (i.e. valid as long as struct net_device exist, same locking rules).
/* Forward declaration */
struct libipw_device;
/* The struct */

struct iw_public_data {
	/* Driver enhanced spy support */
struct iw_spy_data *		spy_data;
	/* Legacy structure managed by the ipw2x00-specific IEEE 802.11 layer */
struct libipw_device *		libipw;

/**************************** PROTOTYPES ****************************/
 * Functions part of the Wireless Extensions (defined in net/core/wireless.c).
 * Those may be called only within the kernel.

/* First : function strictly used inside the kernel */

/* Handle /proc/net/wireless, called in net/code/dev.c */
int dev_get_wireless_info(char *buffer, char **start, off_t offset, int length);

/* Second : functions that may be called by driver modules */

/* Send a single event to user space */
void wireless_send_event(struct net_device *dev, unsigned int cmd,
			 union iwreq_data *wrqu, const char *extra);
/* flush all previous wext events - if work is done from netdev notifiers */
void wireless_nlevent_flush(void);

static inline void wireless_nlevent_flush(void) {}


Johannes Berg8100.00%1100.00%

#endif /* We may need a function to send a stream of events to user space. * More on that later... */ /* Standard handler for SIOCSIWSPY */ int iw_handler_set_spy(struct net_device *dev, struct iw_request_info *info, union iwreq_data *wrqu, char *extra); /* Standard handler for SIOCGIWSPY */ int iw_handler_get_spy(struct net_device *dev, struct iw_request_info *info, union iwreq_data *wrqu, char *extra); /* Standard handler for SIOCSIWTHRSPY */ int iw_handler_set_thrspy(struct net_device *dev, struct iw_request_info *info, union iwreq_data *wrqu, char *extra); /* Standard handler for SIOCGIWTHRSPY */ int iw_handler_get_thrspy(struct net_device *dev, struct iw_request_info *info, union iwreq_data *wrqu, char *extra); /* Driver call to update spy records */ void wireless_spy_update(struct net_device *dev, unsigned char *address, struct iw_quality *wstats); /************************* INLINE FUNTIONS *************************/ /* * Function that are so simple that it's more efficient inlining them */
static inline int iwe_stream_lcp_len(struct iw_request_info *info) { #ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT if (info->flags & IW_REQUEST_FLAG_COMPAT) return IW_EV_COMPAT_LCP_LEN; #endif return IW_EV_LCP_LEN; }


David S. Miller1858.06%150.00%
Jean Tourrilhes1341.94%150.00%

static inline int iwe_stream_point_len(struct iw_request_info *info) { #ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT if (info->flags & IW_REQUEST_FLAG_COMPAT) return IW_EV_COMPAT_POINT_LEN; #endif return IW_EV_POINT_LEN; }


David S. Miller1858.06%150.00%
Jean Tourrilhes1341.94%150.00%

static inline int iwe_stream_event_len_adjust(struct iw_request_info *info, int event_len) { #ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT if (info->flags & IW_REQUEST_FLAG_COMPAT) { event_len -= IW_EV_LCP_LEN; event_len += IW_EV_COMPAT_LCP_LEN; } #endif return event_len; }


Jean Tourrilhes2253.66%150.00%
David S. Miller1946.34%150.00%

/*------------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* * Wrapper to add an Wireless Event to a stream of events. */ char *iwe_stream_add_event(struct iw_request_info *info, char *stream, char *ends, struct iw_event *iwe, int event_len);
static inline char * iwe_stream_add_event_check(struct iw_request_info *info, char *stream, char *ends, struct iw_event *iwe, int event_len) { char *res = iwe_stream_add_event(info, stream, ends, iwe, event_len); if (res == stream) return ERR_PTR(-E2BIG); return res; }


Johannes Berg62100.00%1100.00%

/*------------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* * Wrapper to add an short Wireless Event containing a pointer to a * stream of events. */ char *iwe_stream_add_point(struct iw_request_info *info, char *stream, char *ends, struct iw_event *iwe, char *extra);
static inline char * iwe_stream_add_point_check(struct iw_request_info *info, char *stream, char *ends, struct iw_event *iwe, char *extra) { char *res = iwe_stream_add_point(info, stream, ends, iwe, extra); if (res == stream) return ERR_PTR(-E2BIG); return res; }


Johannes Berg63100.00%1100.00%

/*------------------------------------------------------------------*/ /* * Wrapper to add a value to a Wireless Event in a stream of events. * Be careful, this one is tricky to use properly : * At the first run, you need to have (value = event + IW_EV_LCP_LEN). */ char *iwe_stream_add_value(struct iw_request_info *info, char *event, char *value, char *ends, struct iw_event *iwe, int event_len); #endif /* _IW_HANDLER_H */

Overall Contributors

Jean Tourrilhes33439.95%630.00%
Linus Torvalds19323.09%15.00%
Johannes Berg18321.89%630.00%
David S. Miller799.45%210.00%
Andrew Morton354.19%15.00%
Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo60.72%15.00%
John W. Linville40.48%15.00%
Joe Perches10.12%15.00%
Lucas De Marchi10.12%15.00%
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